Sarajevo is the capital of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity, and the center of the Sarajevo Canton. Nestled within the greater Sarajevo valley of Bosnia, it is surrounded by the Dinaric Alps and situated along the Miljacka River in the heart of Southeastern Europe and the Balkans. According to recent data 503.109 inhabitants live in Sarajevo.
Sarajevo is a slavicized word based on "saray", the Turkish word for "palace". The "evo" portion may come from the term "saray ovası", meaning "the plains around the palace" or simply "palace plains".
Most of the cultural - historical monuments are located within the four architectural segment, which reflect the key historical periods.
Sarajevo city proper consists of four municipalities: Centar (Center), Novi Grad (New City), Novo Sarajevo (New Sarajevo), and Stari Grad (Old City), while Metropolitan area of Sarajevo includes these and the neighbouring municipalities of Ilidža, Hadžići and Vogošća.
In the period after the Austro-Hungarian occupation in the late XIX century until the beginning of World War I the public transportation system was built in Sarajevo, including the first telephone lines and establishing many cultural and educational institutions such as the National Museum and the National Theatre, as well as City Hall, Ashkenazi synagogue and Cathedral of the Sacred Heart.
Sarajevo architectural ascent suddenly was interrupted by the Sarajevo assassination, on 28 June 1914, when Gavrilo Princip assassinated the Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie, changing the current of modern European history. After this event followed by the First World War after Sarajevo became part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Under this state, later called the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, remained until the start of World War II. In the period since 1984, when it became host to the Winter Olympics, Sarajevo has become a modern European city with approximately 500,000 inhabitants. Eight years after this important event followed by the war, after which, in the post-war period significant work on its reconstruction and construction.
Various new modern buildings have been built, most significantly the Bosmal City Center, BBI Centar, Sarajevo City Center and the Avaz Twist Tower, which is the tallest skyscraper in the Balkans. The business enclave Sarajevo City Center is one of the largest and most modern shopping and business centers in the region. It was completed in early 2014. Airport Center Sarajevo which will be connected directly to the new airport terminal will offer a great variety of brands, products and services.
The symbol of Sarajevo is Baščaršija, well-preserved old town market, which is dominated by a fountain known under the Arabic name "sebilj". Sebilj in ancient times represented a place to rest and refresh. It was built by Bosnian vizier Mehmed - pasha Kukavica in the mid eighteenth century, however, after it was damaged by fire in 1850 it has been removed by the Ottoman authorities. Today's appearance was given on the eve of the Winter Olympics, and its replica are found in many European and World capitals. Square near Sebilj is the seat of of numerous pigeons that are almost its symbol. In the vicinity is located Baščaršijska Mosque, built in the early sixteenth century and is one of the oldest mosques in Sarajevo. Not far from the mosque, on Mustaj - pasha mejdanu is City Hall, which is the most beautiful and the most representative building from Austro-Hungarian period. Near the town hall is one of the most famous bridges in Sarajevo - Latin bridge, beside which is located not less known "Inat house". This house is known because the owner requested that literally stone by stone houses put on the other side of the bridge because he did not want to allow that due to the construction of the City Hall it to be demolished.
On the main promenade of Sarajevo is located among the most beautiful achievements of Islamic architecture in this area - Ferhadija mosque that was built in 1561 in whose yard is situated a little cemetery. Not far from the the Ferhadija the Sacred Heart Cathedral was built, whose architectural appearance of a mixture of Romanesque and Gothic style. Multiconfessionality of Sarajevo is evidenced with the Orthodox religious buildings, the Cathedral, one of the largest Orthodox churches in the Balkans.
Another, no less important features of this city, which is a unique blend of East and West are: Ali Pasha's Mosque, Beg Mosque, the Old Orthodox Church, the Church of St. Joseph Church of Saints Cyril and Methodius Church of the Holy Transfiguration, Franciscan Church of St. Anthony of Padua, War Tunnel, Sarajevo brewery, Svrzo house, the White bastion, and Avaz Twist Tower.
Due to its long and rich history of religious and cultural variety, Sarajevo is sometimes called the "Jerusalem of Europe" or "Jerusalem of the Balkans". It was, until late in the 20th century, the only major European city to have a mosque, Catholic church, Orthodox church and synagogue within the same neighborhood. A regional center in education, the city is also home to the Balkans' first institution of tertiary education in the form of an Islamic polytechnic called the Saraybosna Osmanlı Medrese, today part of the University of Sarajevo.
Sarajevo's electric tramways, in operation since 1885, are the oldest form of public transportation in the city. Sarajevo had the first full-time (dawn to dusk) tram line in Europe, and the second in the world. Opened on New Year's Day in 1885, it was the testing line for the tram in Vienna and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and operated by horses.
Sarajevo International Airport (IATA: SJJ), also called Butmir, is located just a few kilometers southwest of the city and was voted Best European Airport With Under 1,000,000 Passengers at the 15th Annual ACI-Europe in Munich in 2005. During the war the airport was used for UN flights and humanitarian relief.
Popular bus relations with departures from Sarajevo: